NGU*O*`I VIET KHA*'P NO*I TRE^N THE^' GIO*'I
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Overseas Vietnamese Total population
Regions with significant populations
United States 1,642,950 (2007)
Cambodia 600,000 
France 250,000 
Australia 159,848 (2006) 
Canada 151,410 (2001) 
Taiwan 120,000–200,000 
Russia up to 150,000 
Germany 83,526 (2004) 
United Kingdom 55,000 
Czech Republic 45,000 
Japan 36,860 (2007) 
China 20,000 
Netherlands 18,913 
Norway 18,333 (2006) 
Sweden 11,771 (2003) 
Poland 10,000 
South Korea 8,725 (2001) 
Denmark 8,575 (2002) 
Switzerland 8,173 (2000) 
Belgium 7,151 (2001) 
New Zealand 4,875 (2001) 
Ukraine 3,274 (2001) 
Hungary 1,020 (2001) 
Finland 4,000 
Thailand 10000 
Overseas Vietnamese (Vietnamese: Người Việt Hải Ngoại, which literally means "Overseas Vietnamese", or Việt Kiều, a Sino-Vietnamese word literally translating to "Vietnamese sojourner") refers to Vietnamese people living outside Vietnam in a diaspora. Of the about 3 million Overseas Vietnamese, a majority left Vietnam as refugees after 1975 as a result of the Fall of Saigon and the Communist regime.
Originally, the term "Việt Kiều" were used in Vietnam to identify members of the Vietnamese diaspora who return to Vietnam for visits or business before they became legal citizens of the Western nations to which they have migrated. In recent years, this term has become a misnomer after the overwhelming majority of Overseas Vietnamese became permanent legal residents of other countries and therefore no longer fit under the outdated "sojourner" label. Nevertheless, it is still a term often used erroneously in Vietnam's state-run media when running stories about overseas Vietnamese, with complete disregard to their residency and citizenship status. The Overseas Vietnamese community itself rarely use this misnomer for self-identification, instead, most prefer the technically-correct term of Người Việt Hải Ngoại (literally translating to Overseas Vietnamese), or occasionally Người Việt Tự Do (Free Vietnamese).
1 Vietnamese worldwide
1.1 United States
1.3.5 United Kingdom
1.3.6 Czech Republic
1.8 Hong Kong
1.9 South Korea
1.13 French Guyana
1.14 New Caledonia
2 Relations with Vietnam
3 See also
5 External links
 Vietnamese worldwide
Overseas Vietnamese can be generally divided into four distinct categories that rarely interact with each other. The first category consists of people who have been living in territories outside of Vietnam prior to 1975; they usually reside in neighboring countries, such as Cambodia, Laos, and China. These people are not usually considered "Việt Kiều" by people residing in Vietnam. During French colonialism, some also migrated to France and some French-speaking areas, such as Québec. The second category, consisting of the vast majority of overseas Vietnamese, are those who escaped Vietnam after 1975 as refugees and their descendants. They usually reside in industrialized countries in North America, Western Europe, and Australia. The third category consists of Vietnamese working and studying in the Soviet bloc who opted to stay there after the Soviet collapse. This group is found mainly in Central and Eastern Europe. The last category consists of recent economic migrants who work in regional Asian countries such as Taiwan and Japan. They also include women who married men from Taiwan and South Korea through marriage agencies. These brides usually follow their husbands to live in those countries. Recently a new group of Vietnamese have been emerging. These are naturally born Vietnamese who attended high school and college in the U.S. or other developed nation. After which they stay in those countries and work and live as permanent residents. (5) These individuals start families in these country but are not themselves legally citizens.
 United States
Main article: Vietnamese American
According to the 2000 census, more than 1.2 million people who are of Vietnamese origin live in the United States, constituting between a third to a half of all overseas Vietnamese. They tend to live in metropolitan areas in the West, especially in California and Texas. Significant areas where they are well-represented include Orange County, California, San Jose, California, and Houston, Texas. As almost all of them left Vietnam after 1975 to escape the communist Vietnamese government, they are generally antagonistic towards the current government of Vietnam.
As of 2007, the Vietnamese American population has grown to more than 1.6 million
See also: List of U.S. cities with large Vietnamese American populations, List of Vietnamese Americans, Little Saigon
The Vietnamese constitute about 5% of the population of Cambodia, and they have been antagonized by ethnic Khmers. Clashes between ethnic Khmers and Vietnamese have been the cause of some conflicts between the two countries. The platform of some mainstream parties include restricting rights of the Vietnamese minority.
Main article: Vietnamese people in France
The number of ethnic Vietnamese living in France is estimated to be around 250,000 as of 2006.
The French-Vietnamese have been in the country since the early 1900s due to the colonization of Vietnam by France, but they only started to become visible after the massive influx of refugees after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. Unlike their counterparts in North America or Australia, the French Vietnamese have not formed distinct Vietnamese enclaves within the major cities of France (although many Vietnamese-run shops can be found in the Chinatown neighborhood of Paris) and the degree of assimilation is higher than in the United States, Canada or Australia due to better cultural, historical and linguistic knowledge of the host country.
The community is still strongly attached to its homeland while being well-integrated in the French society. As the first generation of French-Vietnamese refugees continues to hold on to traditional values, the second generation of French-born Vietnamese strongly identifies with the French culture rather than the Vietnamese one and most of them are unable to speak and/or understand the Vietnamese language. The level of integration of immigrants and their place in French society have become prominent issues in France in the past decade, but the majority of the French people views the Vietnamese community in a much better light than other immigrant groups, partially because of their high degree of integration within the French society and their economic as well as academic success. Most of the French Vietnamese live in Paris and its surrounding areas but a sizable number also reside in the major urban centers in the south-east of the country, primarily Marseille and Lyon.
Main article: Vietnamese people in Germany
Vietnamese comprise the largest Asian ethnic group in Germany . In western Germany, most Vietnamese arrived in the 1960s or 1970s as refugees from the Vietnam war. The comparatively larger Vietnamese community in eastern Germany traces its origins to assistance agreements between the GDR and the North Vietnamese government. Under these agreements, guest workers from Vietnam were brought to East Germany, where they soon made up the largest immigrant group , and were provided with technical training. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall, many stayed in Germany, although they often faced discrimination, especially in the early years following reunification.
Main article: Vietnamese Norwegians
Norway has received Vietnamese refugees since 1975. They numbered about 18,300 in 2006 and are considered one of the best integrated non-western immigrant groups in Norway.
Around 30,000 to 50,000 Vietnamese live in Poland, mostly in big cities. They publish a number of newspapers, both pro- and anti-Communist. The first immigrants were Vietnamese students at Polish universities in the post-World War II era. These numbers increased slightly during the Vietnam War. Most of today's immigrants arrived after 1989. 
 United Kingdom
Main article: Vietnamese people in the United Kingdom
Vietnamese residing in the United Kingdom number around 55,000 people, which is fairly low in comparison to other European countries, and goes against the trend of the UK tending to have the largest East and South East Asian diasporas in Europe. In the 1980s, Margaret Thatcher agreed to take quotas of refugees and 12,000 boat people came to Britain The are established Vietnamese communities in Hackney and other parts of London. There are also communities in Birmingham, Manchester and other major UK cities.
Recently, the Vietnamese in Britain had risen to prominence in the British press due to criminal cannabis-growing activities and trafficking or facilitating illegal migrants.
 Czech Republic
Main article: Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic
Many Vietnamese immigrants in the Czech Republic reside in Prague. There is an enclave called "Little Hanoi", named after the capital city Hanoi of Vietnam. Unlike Vietnamese immigrants in Western Europe and the United States, these immigrants were usually communist cadres studying or working abroad who decided to stay after the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe. The Vietnamese surname Nguyen is even listed as the most common of foreign surnames in the Czech Republic.
The number of Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic is estimated at between 40,000 and 80,000.
Main article: Vietnamese people in Bulgaria
In Bulgaria, Vietnamese people have lived since the 1960s, but most left in 1991. However, with recent immigrants their number is at around 1,500.
Main article: Vietnamese people in Russia
Vietnamese people in Russia form the 72nd-largest ethnic minority community in Russia according to the 2002 census. The Census estimated their population at only 26,205 individuals, making them one of the smaller groups of Việt Kiều. However, unofficial estimates put their population as high as 100,000 to 150,000.
Main article: Vietnamese Australian
Vietnamese Australians constitute the seventh-largest ethnic group in Australia, with 159,848 the population claiming to been born in Vietnam according to the 2006 Census. Vietnamese is the sixth most widely-spoken language in the country, with 194,863 speakers. They vary widely in income and social class levels. Many Vietnamese Australians are upper-class professionals, while others work primarily in blue-collar jobs. Australian-born Vietnamese Australians have a higher than average rate of participation in tertiary education. In 2001 the labor participation rate for Vietnamese-born residents was 61%, only slightly lower than the level for Australian born residents (63%) . Over three quarters of Vietnamese-Australians live in New South Wales (40.7%) and Victoria (36.8%). Being mostly refugees after the Vietnam War, they are generally antagonistic toward the government of Vietnam.
The popular surname Nguyễn is the seventh most common family name in Australia (second only to Smith in the Melbourne phone book).
Main article: Vietnamese Canadian
According to the 2001 census, Canada has 151,410 people with Vietnamese origins. They include 67,450 in Ontario, 28,310 in Québec and 21,490 in Alberta. They are similar to Vietnamese Americans in most respects. Some of those lived in Québec before 1975. Vancouver is a major destination for newly arrived Vietnamese immigrants since 1980, including those of Chinese descent since Vancouver has a large Chinese population (see Chinese Canadians).
Many Vietnamese boat refugees landed in the Philippines in post-1975 and, as a result, a community called Viet-Ville (French for "Viettown") was formed in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, making it the center of Vietnamese commerce and culture complete with Vietnamese restaurants, shops, and Catholic churches and Buddhist temples at the time. Its ethnic Vietnamese population of the community has dwindled greatly, however, as many have since been resettled in the United States, Australia, or Western Europe; while others were integrated to the Filipinos, changing their surnames and speaking tagalog or visayan. Viet-Ville remains a popular destination for local Filipino residents.
Main article: Vietnamese people in Taiwan
 Hong Kong
Main article: Vietnamese people in Hong Kong
Vietnamese migration to Hong Kong began after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, when boat people took to the sea and began fleeing Vietnam in all directions. Those who landed in Hong Kong were placed in refugee camps until they could be resettled in a third country. Eventually, under the Hong Kong government's Comprehensive Plan of Action, newly arriving Vietnamese were classified as either political refugees or economic migrants. Those deemed to be economic migrants would be denied the opportunity for resettlement overseas.
 South Korea
Main article: Vietnamese people in South Korea
Vietnamese people in South Korea today consist mainly of migrant workers and women introduced to South Korean husbands through marriage agencies. There are a small number of Vietnamese people who settled in South Korea before or after 1975. In the 1400s, several thousand Vietnamese fled to Korea following the exile of the Vietnamese Ly Dynasty. The descendants of these people today have largely mixed with Koreans and are found in both South and North Korea. On November 6, 1958, during his visit to South Vietnam, South Korean president Syngman Rhee reportedly told the local press that he was a descendant of Ly Long Tuong. The settlements of these Vietnamese people (temples, family tree houses) still stand and exist today.
Main article: Vietnamese people in Israel
The number of Vietnamese people in Israel is estimated as 200. Most of them came to Israel in between 1976-1979, after prime minister Menachem Begin authorized their admission to Israel and granted them political asylum. The Vietnamese people living in Israel are Israeli citizens who also serve in the Israel Defence Forces. Today, the majority of the community lives in the Gush Dan area in the center of Israel.
Main article: Vietnamese people in Japan
26,018 Vietnamese people resided in Japan as of 2004. Some Vietnamese students came to Japan as early as the beginning of the 20th century. However, the majority of the community is composed of refugees admitted in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as well as a smaller proportion of migrant laborers who began arriving in 1994.
Main article: Vietnamese people in China
 French Guyana
Main article: Vietnamese people in France#Vietnamese in other French territories
 New Caledonia
Main article: Vietnamese people in France#Vietnamese in other French territories
 Relations with Vietnam
Relations between overseas Vietnamese populations and the current government of Vietnam traditionally range between polarities of geniality and overt contempt. Generally, overseas Vietnamese residing in North America, Western Europe, and Australia (which represent the vast majority of overseas Vietnamese populations) are unilaterally opposed to the existing government of Vietnam. However, there is a smaller population of overseas Vietnamese residing in Central and Eastern Europe, most of whom have been sent for training in formerly communist countries. These populations generally maintain positive relations with the government. Vietnamese Prime Minister Phan Van Khai's visit to Washington, D.C. in June 2005 was met with several hundred Vietnamese American protesters despite the city's location far away from the largest Vietnamese-American communities. Those who left prior to the political exodus of 1975 generally identify their sentiments as somewhere in between the two polarities.
However, relations seem to be improving in recent years. The former South Vietnamese prime minister Nguyen Cao Ky returned to Vietnam in 2004 and was generally positive about his experience. Notable expatriate artists have returned to Vietnam to perform (some are met with scorn and boycott by the expatriate community itself after they have done so). Notably, the composer Pham Duy had returned to Ho Chi Minh City to live the rest of his life there after living in Midway City, California since 1975. The government in Vietnam used less antagonistic rhetoric to describe those who left the country after 1975. According to the Vietnamese government, while in 1987 only 8,000 overseas Vietnamese returned to Vietnam for visits, that number jumped to 430,000 in 2004.
The Vietnamese government, for its own part, had actively tried to woo back overseas Vietnamese, who bring capital and expertise. Its view of the Việt Kiều changed from "cowardly traitors" to "essential elements of Vietnamese people" (or "integral parts of the Vietnamese Nation"). The government enacted laws to make it easier for overseas Vietnamese to do business in Vietnam, including those allowing them to own land. However, some overseas Vietnamese still complain about discrimination that they face while trying to do business there.
In June 2007, Vietnamese president Nguyen Minh Triet visited the United States, one of his scheduled stops is within the vicinity Orange County, home of Little Saigon, the largest Vietnamese community outside of Vietnam. Details of his plans were not announced beforehand due to concerns of massive protests. Several thousand people protested in Washington, D.C. and Orange County during his visit.
 See also
List of Vietnamese people
^ a b Vietnamese American Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrived 30 June 2009
^ "Vietnamese Community in Great Britain". Runnymede Trust. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/publications/108/74.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
^ "Bevolking naar herkomst". Statistics Netherlands. http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=37325&D1=0&D2=0&D3=0&D4=0&D5=a&D6=%28l-2%29-l&VW=T. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
^ Collet, Christian (May 26, 2000). "The Determinants of Vietnamese American Political Participation: Findings from the January 2000 Orange County Register Poll" (PDF). 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association of Asian American. Scottsdale, Arizona.
^ Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T.; Meyer, David S. (April 1 2004), "Protest and Political Incorporation: Vietnamese American Protests, 1975-2001", Center for the Study of Democracy 04 (08), http://repositories.cdlib.org/csd/04-08/
^ Blanc, Marie-Eve (2004), "Vietnamese in France", in Ember, Carol, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, Springer, pp. 1162, ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9
^ Malcolm Dick. "Vietnamese people in Birmingham". http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/GenerateContent?CONTENT_ITEM_ID=13347&CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE=0&MENU_ID=5359. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
^ Nga Pham (2004-10-29). "Vietnam's new UK migrants". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3965035.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
^ Coilin O'Connor, Is the Czech Republic's Vietnamese community finally starting to feel at home?, Czech Radio, 29 May 2007
^ Miroslav Nozina, The Dragon & the Lion: Vietnamese Organized Crime in the Czech Republic, Think Magazine
^ Кръстева, Анна (2005). "Виетнамци" (PDF). Имиграцията в България. София: IMIR. ISBN 954-8872-56-0. http://www.imir-bg.org/imir/books/Imigraciata%20v%20Balgaria.pdf.
^ (Russian) "Население по национальности и владению русским языком по субъектам Российской Федерации" (Microsoft Excel). Федеральная служба государственной статистики. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/TOM_04_03.xls. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
^ Blagov, Sergei (2000-02-08). "Russian rhetoric fails to boost business". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/c-asia/BB08Ag01.html. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
^ (Vietnamese) "Cộng đồng người Việt Nam ở nước ngoài". Quê Hương. 2005-03-09. http://www.quehuong.org.vn/vi/nr041215095635/nr050107191630/ns050111144902. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
^ . Australian Bureau of Statistics (2007-06-04). "of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex&producttype=Census Tables&method=Place of Usual Residence&areacode=0 ABS Census - Country of Birth, 2006". http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/download?format=xls&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex&producttype=Census Tables&method=Place of Usual Residence&areacode=0. Retrieved 20078-06-14.
^ The Age. "Nguyens keeping up with the Joneses". http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/whats-in-a-name/2006/09/04/1157222045836.html. Retrieved 2006-09-09.
^ Melbourne City Council. "City of Melbourne - Multicultural Communities - Vietnamese". http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=100&pg=918. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
^ Nguyen, Nhu (1999). The Reality: Vietnamese Migrant Workers in South Korea. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Mobility Research and Support Center.
^ Onishi, Norimitsu (2007-02-21). "Marriage brokers in Vietnam cater to S. Korean bachelors". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/21/news/brides.php. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
^ (PDF) 平成１６年末現在における外国人登録者統計について (About the statistics of registered foreigners at 2004 year-end). Japan: Ministry of Justice. June 2005. http://www.moj.go.jp/PRESS/050617-1/050617-1-1.pdf.
^ Tran, My-Van (2005). A Vietnamese Royal Exile in Japan: Prince Cuong De (1882-1951). Routledge. pp. 3–5, 41–47. ISBN 0415297168.
^ Shingaki, Masami; Shinichi Asano (2003). "The lifestyles and ethnic identity of Vietnamese youth residing in Japan". in Roger Goodman. Global Japan: The Experience of Japan's New Immigrant and Overseas Communities. Routledge. pp. pp. 165-176. ISBN 0415297419.
^ Anh, Dang Nguyen (2003). "Labour Emigration and Emigration Pressures in Transitional Vietnam". in Robyn R. Iredale. Migration in the Asia Pacific: Population, Settlement and Citizenship Issues. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. pp. 169-180. ISBN 1840648600.
^ Mike Anton (June 19, 2007). "Rumored visit has Little Saigon abuzz". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/california/la-me-littlesaigon19jun19,1,7935941.story?coll=la-headlines-pe-california. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
^ Deepa Bharath, Mary Ann Milbourn and Norberto Santana Jr. (June 22, 2007). "Making their voices heard". Orange County Register. http://www.ocregister.com/ocregister/homepage/abox/article_1741241.php. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
^ Jeanette Steele (June 24, 2007). "Vietnam president's visit sparks protest". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/state/20070624-9999-1n24viet.html. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
 External links
The Viet Kieu Experience
The Six Faces: Viet Kieu - Overseas Vietnamese
List Of Vietnamese Professors in foreign countries
Viet kieu invest in 1,300 domestic projects
Viet Kieu in Vietnamese
Fund seeks to boost links with Viet kieu
Business Opportunities Draw Viet Kieu Back to Vietnam
Viet Kieu still discriminated against
A Viet Kieu Visits Her Homeland for the First Time
Viet Kieu by Andrew Lam
Overseas Vietnamese Science & Technology Club- in Vietnamese (needs volunteer to translate to English)
Reassessing what we collect website – Vietnamese London History of Vietnamese London with objects and images
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